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News & Announcements

No-Fault: Fix It, Don't Nix It15-May-2017

"Bad Behavior Also Applies to Insurance Companies" Thanks to the FREEP’s JC Reindl for an informative overview of Michigan’s auto no-fault situation. The series shines in underscoring.. Read More...

Capitol Day, Annual Meeting, and Spring Fling03-Apr-2017

On Wednesday, May 17th, we will be gathering in the Mackinaw Room for Capitol Day 2017. It's a chance for brain injury survivors, their friends and family members, caregivers, and professionals to.. Read More...

March is Brain Injury Awareness Month02-Mar-2017

March is Brain Injury Awareness Month. Throughout this month, BIAMI has various activities, events, initiatives, and special programming across the state. A few notable events lined up include our.. Read More...

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BIA HOME : Brain Injury Facts

Brain Injury Facts

Brain in head graphic

A Moment Can Change a Lifetime

Brain injuries are complex and come with many unanticipated consequences. They can range from mild injuries that only require some rest and monitoring, to serious injuries that can result in permanent disability or death. Whether mild or severe, brain injuries require expert, specialized assessment and treatment to ensure the best long-term outcome. The Brain Injury Association of Michigan offers resources to help you better understand what a brain injury is, what you or someone you know is going through after a brain injury, and how to help prevent brain injuries. This page serves as an overview on the topic of brain injury. It covers what it is, what causes them, national and statewide statistics, some of the issues that are caused by brain injuries, the financial costs of brain injury to individuals and society, and the people affected by brain injury. Please take some time to review the information on this page, it may help you better understand someone you may encounter during your day.

What are ABI and TBI?

Define ABI and TBI ↓

• Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) occurs after birth and includes anoxia, aneurysms, infection to the brain, stroke, and TBI
   – It is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative
• Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain
   – It is caused by some trauma to the brain (a blow, jolt, or bump to the head or a penetrating head injury
   – TBI is a subset of ABI
   – ABI and TBI are not interchangeable terms

Remember: Just as no two people are exactly alike, no two brain injuries are exactly alike. For some, brain injury is the start of a lifelong disease process. The injury requires access to a full continuum of medically necessary treatment and community-based supports furnished by interdisciplinary teams of qualified and specialized clinicians working in accredited programs and appropriate settings.

What Causes ABI's and TBI's

Causes of ABI ↓

• Lightning Strikes and other forms of electric shocks
• Infectious diseases
• Near drowning and other forms of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia/anoxia)
• Seizure disorders
• Stroke
• Substance abuse
• Exposure to toxic substances
• Trauma
• Tumors
• Plus the causes of TBI (see Causes of TBI)

Causes of TBI ↓

Traumatic Brain Injury Causes graph • Falls
• Struck by or against
• Motor vehicle incidents
• Assaults
• Unknown

How Widespread is Brain Injury?

Nationally ↓

• More than 3.5 million children and adults sustain an acquired brain injury (ABI) each year
   – The total incidence is unknown
• More than 12 million Americans live with the impact of ABI
• At least 2.5 million children and adults sustain TBI’s in the US each year (this equates to a TBI every 13 seconds)
   – 2.2 million are treated in emergency departments each year
   – 280,000 are hospitalized each year
   – 50,000 die each year (this equates to 137 dying from TBI's everyday)
• TBI is the leading cause of death and disability among youth and young adults nationwide
• The risk of TBI is highest among children 0 - 4, adolescents 15 - 19, and adults over 75
   – TBI is a contributing fact to nearly a third (30.5%) of all injury related deaths
• About 75% of TBI’s that occur each year are concussions or other forms of mild TBI (mTBI)
• At least 5.3 million Americans live with TBI-related disabilities
   – 1 in 60 people in the US live with a TBI-related disability

In Michigan ↓

Brain Injury Statistics in Michigan graph • In Michigan, 58,500 people will sustain a TBI every year
   – 46,000 are treated and released to recover on their own
   – 10,980 are hospitalized
   – 1,520 will die
• Nearly 50% of people hospitalized for TBI are under 45 years old

How Do Brain Injuries Affect People?

Brain injuries can alter a person's cognitive abilities, have physical manifestations, and influence a person's emotional and behavioral state. See the information below for a few examples of these.
Cognitive ↓

• Short-term memory loss
• Ability to process information impaired
• Difficulty concentrating for periods of time
• Difficulty following a conversation
• Spatial disorientation
• Organizational problems
• Impaired judgement

Physical ↓

• Seizures
• Muscle spasticity
• Double vision, low vision, or blindness
• Loss of taste or smell
• Speech impairments
• Headaches and migraines
• Gait and balance issues

Emotional and Behavioral ↓

• Increased anxiety
• Depression
• Mood swings
• Impulsive behavior
• Increased agitation
• Egocentric behaviors
• Difficulty understanding behavioral impact

What Are the Costs of Brain Injury?

Nationally ↓

• The average hospital-based acute rehab is about $8,000 per day
• The range for post-acute residential is about $850 to $2,500 per day
• Day treatment programs (e.g. 4 hours of therapy) are about $600 - $1,000 with no room/board
• According to the CDC, direct medical costs and indirect costs of TBI total an estimated $76.3 billion each year
   – Lost productivity and wages are examples of indirect costs

In Michigan ↓

• TBI costs society an estimated 2.4 billion annually
• Medicaid Fee for Service (FFS) component pays about $20 million a year for TBI-related services
   – Only 1/3 of all individuals receiving Medicaid TBI services are enrolled in FFS

Who Does Brain Injury Affect?

Brain Injury Affects: ↓

• Brian injury survivors and their parents, spouses, siblings, other family members, and friends
• Healthcare providers, such as:
   – Surgeons
   – Physicians
   – Counselors
   – Rehab therapists
   – Social workers
   – Personal care attendants
• Insurance companies that issue:
   – Auto accident
   – Individual
   – Group health
   – Disability
   – Life
   – reinsurance policies
• Attorneys of all types, including those who handle:
   – Personal injury
   – Insurance and disability claims
   – Civil rights/discrimination
   – Domestic actions
   – Guardianship
   – Wills
   – Estates
   – Trusts
• Educators at every level, but especially:
   – Special education teachers
   – Teachers responsible for preparing America's future healthcare workforce
• Government agencies that administer health and social programs such as:
   – Michigan Department of Health and Human Services
   – Medicare
   – Medicaid
   – State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
   – Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP)
   – Vocational rehab
• Employers of all types